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The flight that turns princesses into queens and kills all the charm princes.

The Nuptial Flights of Atta Cephalotes: A Deep Dive into the Leaf Cutter Ant Drone's Life

Biologist Julio Barrantes

6/1/20242 min read

Leaf Cutter Ant Drone in Costa Rica
Leaf Cutter Ant Drone in Costa Rica

The flight that turn princesses into queens and kill all the charm princes.

According to our resident biologist at Boyero Tours (Julio Barrantes) Atta cephalotes, commonly known as leafcutter ants, are fascinating creatures renowned for their complex social structures and agricultural prowess. Among these ants, the drones and queens hold a special place due to their unique role in reproduction. These are the only members of the species equipped with wings, enabling them to perform their nuptial flights.

The Nuptial Flight: A Rainy Season Romance

If you are living or visiting Costa Rica during the beginning of the rainy season, you will notice hundreds or thousands of these fascinating drones dead on the ground. Every year, at the onset of the rainy season, a spectacular event unfolds — the nuptial flight of Atta cephalotes. During this period, both drones and queens take to the skies in a synchronized flight that marks the beginning of their reproductive journey. This phenomenon is not just a remarkable natural spectacle but also a pivotal moment for the perpetuation of their species.

According to a study published in the Journal of Insect Behavior, "The nuptial flight of Atta cephalotes is intricately timed with the early rains, providing optimal conditions for the dispersal and mating of these ants." The synchronized flight ensures that the queens and drones from various colonies interbreed, enhancing genetic diversity within the population.

Life of Drones: From Birth to Mating

Drones, or male ants, lead a relatively short but crucial life. They are born solely for the purpose of mating with queens during the nuptial flight. As another research paper in Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology notes, "Drones are equipped with wings and larger eyes, adaptations that aid them in locating and mating with queens during the brief nuptial flight period." Once they fulfill their reproductive role, their life cycle comes to an end.

This brief yet vital existence underscores the importance of the nuptial flight, which not only facilitates reproduction but also allows for the establishment of new colonies. The queens, having mated, will shed their wings and search for suitable locations to start new nests, thus continuing the cycle of life for Atta cephalotes.

You might find the drones dead on your backyards or on the floor outside your rooms, don't be worry, they are harmless and rest assure, they lived a happy but short life.


The life of Atta cephalotes drones is a testament to the intricate and finely-tuned processes of nature. Their nuptial flights, timed perfectly with the rainy season, are essential for the continuation of their species. As they take to the skies, these winged ants epitomize the remarkable adaptations and behaviors that have fascinated scientists and nature enthusiasts alike.

In understanding the life cycle and reproductive strategies of Atta cephalotes, we gain a deeper appreciation for the complexities of the natural world and the delicate balance that sustains it.